Spring Design Considerations - Room Temperature Properties of Inconel Alloy X750 Wire for No 1 Temper - Inconel X-750 Springs



Inconel X-750 Springs

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  1. Spring Design Considerations
  2. Design stresses for helical springs at Elevated Temperatures
  3. Design stresses for flat springs at Elevated Temperatures
  4. Specifications for Spring Wire
  5. Room-Temperature Properties of Inconel Alloy X750 Wire for No. 1 Temper
  6. Room-Temperature Properties of Inconel Alloy X750 Wire for Spring Temper
  7. Room-Temperature Shear Properties of Inconel Alloy X750 Springs
  8. Relaxation of springs cold-coiled from No. 1 Temper wire
  9. Relaxation of springs cold-coiled from triple-heat-treated Spring Temper wire
  10. Relaxation at 1000°F vs time of Spring-Temper, triple-heat-treated springs
  11. Relaxation at 1100°F of Spring-Temper, triple-heat-treated springs
  12. Relaxation at 1200°F vs time of Spring-Temper, triple-heat- treated springs
  13. Relaxation at 1300°F of Spring-Temper, triple-heat-treated springs
  14. Fatigue strength of cold-rolled Spring-Temper strip
  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on Modulus of Rigidity and Damping Decrement in Torsion of Cold-Drawn Wire

Spring Design Considerations - Room Temperature Properties of Inconel Alloy X750 Wire for No 1 Temper

Room-Temperature Properties of Inconel Alloy X750 Wire for No. 1 Temper

Condition Tensile Strength,
Yield Strength
(0.2% Offset), ksi
Proportional Limit
(0.2% Offset), ksi
in 2 in.,%
Modulus of Elasticity,
Diameter, in. Diameter, in. Diameter, in. Diameter, in. Tension Torsion
0.02 0.23 0.02 0.229 0.02 0.229 0.02 0.229
As-Drawn 139 145 68 119 40 56 30.0 24 30.6 11.3
1950°F/15 min. W.Q. 120 110 43 42 34 24 34.0 53 31.0 11.3
2100°F/2 hr, W.Q. +
1550°F/24 hr +
1300°F/20 hr, A.C.
158 166 93 101 65 64 13.0 14 30.2 11.7
1350°F/16 hr, A.C. 202 204 141 159 93 91 16.0 16 31.2 11.6
1200°F/4 hr, A.C. 178 176 109 136 77 81 25.0 19 30.4 11.7

No. 1 Temper wire is hardened only a small degree by the cold reduction it has undergone, but its rigidity is sufficient to permit uniform coiling on automatic machines. Spring-Temper wire has been cold-worked to the extent that the load-carrying capacity of springs made from it has been significantly raised. Thus, increased cold work gives higher strength and higher working stresses but only up to service temperatures approaching the stress-relieving temperatures.

Spring-Temper wire has a greater proportional limit but not greater resistance to relaxation at moderate temperatures. For instance, a No. 1 Temper spring, precipitation-treated 1350°F/16 hr, loaded at 70 ksi, relaxed only 3% in 500 hr at 800°F, whereas an identical spring made of Spring-Temper wire and also precipitation-treated 1350°F/16 hr, relaxed 12%. This difference in relaxation is believed to be the effect of a difference in residual stresses brought about by cold work.

Therefore, for maximum strength from cryogenic temperatures up to about 700°F, the Spring-Temper condition, precipitation-treated 1200°F/4 hr, is recommended. For greatest relaxation resistance (up to about 900°F), No. 1 Temper, directly precipitation-treated (1350°F/16 hr) springs are preferable.

For service from about 900° to 1200°F, springs should be made of Spring-Temper material solution-treated plus stabilization-treated plus precipitation-treated (2100°F/2 hr, A.C., + 1550°F/24 hr, A.C., + 1300°F/20 hr, A.C.). Material given this triple-heat-treatment will have a lower proportional limit but maximum relaxation resistance at 900° - 1200°F under stresses less than the proportional limit.

The reason for its superior relaxation resistance stems from cold working. A high percentage of the cold work on a wire that has been reduced 15% (No. 1 Temper) will be on its periphery; during solution treating grains will grow in the area that was cold-worked. On the other hand, wire cold reduced 30-65% will be cold-worked throughout and uniform-size grains will grow throughout its cross section.

In general, the relaxation strength is greater for wire with a uniform coarse grain structure. The relaxation of springs cold-coiled from No. 1 Temper wire precipitation-treated at 1350°F/16 hr and that of springs cold-coiled from Spring-Temper wire and triple-heat-treated (2100°F/2 hr, A.C., + 1550°F/24 hr, A.C., + 1300°F/20 hr, A.C.) are shown in figures below.

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Inconel X-750

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